The ADD Centre® & The Biofeedback Institute of Toronto®

Stacks Image 15
EEG Biofeedback is labeled "EFFICACIOUS" for SEIZURE disorders:
For information on this the reader is referred to the review article of controlled studies done by the originator of this research, M. B. Sterman Ph.D. professor emeritus UCLA in: Sterman, M. B. (2000), Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 45-55. In this publication Sterman shows two summary tables. In the first table Sterman shows studies carried out between 1972 and 1980. In the second table there are studies between 1981 and 1996. These studies are all published in peer-reviewed journals including Archives of Neurology, Epilepsia, International Journal of Psychophysiology, Seizure, and Science.  All the reports have controls applied. In the first table there are 12 reports. In the second table there are 6. The two tables combined have a total of 174 subjects with 142 subjects (82%) demonstrating clinical improvement and 66 % demonstrating EEG improvement. There is now some newer research coming from Dr. Wu Wenqing, Friendship Hospital & Capital Medical University of Beijing. Dr Wu has successfully used NFB training on more than 80 patients at the time of writing.

A more recent meta-analysis has been published by Dr Tan et al:

Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy. Tan G, Thornby J, Hammond DC, Strehl U, Canady B, Arnemann K, Kaiser DA. Michael E. DeBakey. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2009 Jul;40(3):173-9.

They note that about one third of patients with epilepsy do not benefit from medical treatment. For these patients electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback is a viable alternative. Tan et al analyzed every EEG biofeedback study indexed in Medline, Psychlnfo, and Psychlit databases between 1970 and 2005 on epilepsy that provided seizure frequency change in response to feedback.
They note that Sixty-three studies have been published, 10 of which provided enough outcome information to be included in a meta-analysis. All these studies consisted of patients whose seizures were not controlled by medical therapies, which is a very important factor to keep in mind when interpreting the results. Nine of 10 studies reinforced sensorimotor rhythms (SMR) while 1 study trained slow cortical potentials (SCP). All of these studies reported an overall mean decreased seizure incidence following treatment and 64 out of 87 patients (74 %) reported fewer weekly seizures in response to EEG biofeedback. Based on this meta-analysis, EEG operant conditioning was found to produce a significant reduction on seizure frequency. This finding is especially noteworthy given the patient group, individuals who had been unable to control their seizures with medical treatment.

Other Disorders:

There are studies now emerging for Depression, Anxiety and Panic, Asperger's, and Autistism. Importantly, there is now considerable work being carried on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and concussion. As noted above, for a list of publications reporting on NFB for different symptoms and disorders the reader should refer to Dr. Cory Hammond's review of existing literature on

For more information please contact, Dr. Lynda Thompson at the ADD Centre® (905) 803 8066 or (416) 488-2233