Brodmann Areas (BA), 10-20 Sites, Primary Functions
ADD Centre, Biofeedback Institute of Toronto, American Applied NeuroScience Institute
Michael Thompson, MD, James Thompson, PhD., Wu Wenqing, MD.
AVAILABLE from the 'Bookstore' under WWW.AAPB.ORG
Functions for each Brodmann area are outlined below. This preliminary document represents a best guess based on our clinical observations and on the work published (or unpublished) by others. We must start somewhere, however, the detail of functions for each Brodmann area is necessarily FALSE. Why? Because all functions are a result of the interaction of many areas. As Dan Lloyd of Trinity College, Hartford, CT, so succinctly put it, “The typical BA is differentially engaged in 40% of behavioral (cognitive, perceptual, emotive) domains” (Lloyd, 2007). This is one reason why coherence and phase training may become increasingly important in EEG Biofeedback.
NOTE: Please do not get confused. A Brodmann area does not (necessarily) correspond precisely to a named gyrus on the cortex. In the following we have tried to give as close a correspondence as possible. We have given the closest approximation of 10-20 sites to the Brodmann areas as we could. Please e-mail to us your suggestions for corrections; they are appreciated. email@example.com Thank you.
Dr. Thompson, ADD Centre & The Biofeedback Institute, Canada; Dr. Wu Wenqing, Friendship Hospital & Capital Medical University of Beijing and Dr. James Thompson AANI, New York, USA have made this attempt to simplify and put in summary form the work of many others. Special thanks are extended to Mark Dubin, Dan Lloyd, Richard Soutar, Bob Thatcher, Johnathan Walker, and many others who have given us their summaries or whose work is available on the internet. These persons are mentioned because they were consulted or used as primary references. All have spent considerable time compiling data on this subject.
Note: A dash between sites, (F3-C3) means ‘between these two sites’. The following short forms are also used: Mirror Neuron System(MNS); left hand side(LHS), right hand side(RHS), Brodmann Area(BA); and (?) means we don’t have a reference. Figures are adapted from The Neurofeedback Book. (Original illustrations by Amanda Reeves with colouring and numbering of areas by Bojana Knezevic)
Central Sites – Mid-Sagittal View
In the following, some central sites are reflected on the surface EEG at FPz, Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz. To a small extent there may be some reflection of the central sites at F7, F8; T7, T8; P7, P8.However, for more precise work practitioners in the future may use LORETA neurofeedback.
Note: Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), Electromyogram (EMG)
i. In conduction aphasia a client may be able to understand and have good comprehension but may be unable to repeat what they have just read or heard. In these circumstances there could be a lesion in the arcuate fasiculus between Wernicke’s area in the temporal parietal junction and Broca’s area in the frontal lobe. The client would exhibit dyslexia. In the QEEG (19 channel) it is possible that one would observe hypo-coherence between F7 and P7 (also possibly P3). Coherence training should improve the dyslexic symptoms.
ii. In another type of learning problem, referred to as a non-verbal learning disability, one might observe hyper-coherence between areas in the parietal lobe (more on the right side) and hypo-coherence between the parietal areas and the left temporal lobe. In our experience it is reasonable to expect symptom improvement with neurofeedback training to correct the coherence problems.
Note: As a general rule-of-thumb, both in amplitude training and in coherence training, it may not be the frequency or even the direction, too much or too little, compared to the data base, that is the main key to understanding what is occurring. The most significant key to understanding what is malfunctioning is the function of the areas that are > + or – 2SD compared to the normal data base.
Selected References: (We extend thanks to the many people who so kindly guided us in putting together this summary. Their generosity is greatly appreciated. Only a few could be referenced below)
Dubin, Mark Brodmann Areas in the Human Brain with an emphasis on vision and language. University of Colorado www.spot.colorado.edu/~dubin/talks/Brodmann/Brodmann.html
Lloyd, Dan, 2007, What do Brodmann areas do? Or: Scanning the Neurocracy. Program in Neuroscience, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106 (dan.lloyd [at] trincoll.edu) Personal Communication, Dr. Lloyd notes that this is a work-in-progress. (This work is well researched and very detailed.)
Neuroguide Delux, 2.3.7, (2007). Robert Thatcher, Applied Neuroscience Inc. (www.appliedneuroscience.com)
Richard Soutar, Ph.D., 2000, New MindNeurofeedback Center Personal Communication
Thompson, L. (2003) The Neurofeedback Book: An Introduction to Basic Concepts in Applied Psychophysiology, Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology.
Walker, J. Kolzlowski, G. Lawson, R., A modular activation/coherence approach to evaluating clinical/QEEG correlations and for guiding neurofeedback training: modular insufficiencies, modular excesses, disconnections, and hyperconnections. Journal of Neurotherapy, vol.11,(1) 25-44
A copy of this may be obtained from: www.isnr.org
At a nominal cost with all proceeds being donated to the isnr research fund.